Tag Archives: Nordyke & Marmon Co.

Louis Schwitzer’s contributions to excellence in engineering continues today.

Louis Schwitzer
Louis Schwitzer
Used with permission of the
National Automotive History Collection
at Detroit Public Library

In his honor, the Indiana Section of SAE International and BorgWarner present the BorgWarner Louis Schwitzer Award each year for innovation and engineering excellence in race car design at the Indianapolis 500.

The Schwitzer saga started on August 19, 1909, when a crowd of 15,000 persons gathered at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway for the inaugural weekend of racing. The winner of the first five mile race, Schwitzer, turned out to be an automotive engineer, not a professional racing car driver.

His car was a stripped down Stoddard Dayton touring car powered by a four cylinder engine. It traveled at an average speed of 57.4 miles per hour for five miles on the macadam track. The driver was nicknamed “Louie”.

Born in Austria, Louie had the advantage of a formal education in mechanical and design engineering. He left Austria at the turn of the century, arriving in America with only $18 in his pocket.

Louie entered the automobile industry as an engineer for Pierce Arrow, working on one of the first six-cylinder engines made in America. A chance meeting with industrialist Howard C. Marmon brought an invitation to Indianapolis.

Louie found the “action” he sought in Indianapolis with his new job as design engineer at Nordyke and Marmon. He helped design the famous “Marmon Yellow Jacket” engine which powered the winning Marmon racing car driven by Ray Harroun in winning the first Indy 500 in 1911. Later, Schwitzer joined the Atlas Engine Works as chief engineer. No longer a driver, Louie opted to join the Indianapolis Motor Speedway Technical Committee in 1912, serving as its chairman from 1919 through 1945.

Also in 1912, Louie joined the Empire Motor Car Company, leaving in 1914 to join the United States Army Motor Transport Corps. He was deeply involved in the design of class ‘B’ military trucks and the 150 240 mm gun mounts. In fact, Louie remained active in Ordnance affairs for the rest of his life.

After World War I, Louie felt he could serve the automotive industry better by improving upon existing cooling systems. He started his own business in a one room factory late in 1918 to manufacture automotive cooling fans. When asked by an interviewer why he chose a cooling fan as his first product, he calmly replied, “Because I know more about them than anyone”.

During the 1920’s, Schwitzer built probably the first high production super charger for gasoline and diesel engines in America. The experience gained in gear production from the oil pump business was easily transferred to ‘positive displacement’ (rotor) type superchargers, which used drive gears to time the revolving two or three lobe rotors. The first application was on a Stutz Bearcat.

After World War II, Schwitzer replaced the more wasteful gear driven superchargers with “turbo chargers” in which the impeller wheel was driven by a turbine wheel using spent exhaust gases. Schwitzer’s low cost, efficient turbochargers were introduced on the Cummins diesel powered racing car which won the pole position for the 1952 Indianapolis 500. Today, turbochargers are considered standard equipment on almost all diesel powered engines.

Louie Schwitzer retired from the Schwitzer Corporation (now Schwitzer Incorporated), in 1964 at age 83. He died three years later at his Indianapolis home. In recognition of this true automotive pioneer, the Indiana Section SAE annually presents the BorgWarner Louis Schwitzer Award for innovation and engineering excellence in race car design.

This year on Friday, May 20th, the Indiana Section of SAE International and BorgWarner present the BorgWarner Louis Schwitzer Award at the Indianapolis 500.

Publishers note: Nordyke & Marmon Co., Empire Motor Car Co., and Schwitzer Corporation were all Indianapolis based firms. Thus, Indianapolis and Indiana enjoyed Louis Schwitzer’s many accomplishments from the first days of the Speedway throughout his life.

For more information on Indiana auto pioneers follow this link.

Indianapolis auto heritage

Indianapolis was a commercial producer of automobiles and taxicabs from 1897 to 1937. The Circle City, with 65 different vehicles manufactured here, ranked second to Cleveland, with 82, as Detroit’s chief rival for the title of the nation’s auto capital.

David L. Lewis notes in The Automobile in American Culture that until 1905 Indianapolis contained more auto plants than did any city in Michigan. Indianapolis makes, like Duesenberg, Marmon, and Stutz, are highly sought after by collectors today and have achieved the “Classic” designation from the Classic Car Club of America. Plus, the Indianapolis Motor Speedway brought acclaim for the city as the birthplace for many engineering improvements and played an important part in the development process for Indianapolis makers as well as other autos.

Stutz Motor Car Company
Stutz Motor Car Company

As with the majority of manufacturers around the state, the companies in Indianapolis were primarily assemblers. They concentrated on providing uniqueness to their products, which proved to be their undoing. They were not able to compete with the mass producers who could control all components of the process and, therefore, offer a product at a much lower price.

Many of the buildings that housed the movers and shakers of Indianapolis automotive industry still stand. Capitol Avenue has the nucleus of what might be regarded as an Indianapolis automotive heritage district.

HCS Motor Car Co., 1402 N. Capitol Ave., 1920-1927
Harry V. Hyatt, Graham-Paige Showroom, 1327 N. Capitol Ave., 1929
Stutz Motor Car Co., 1008 N. Capitol Ave., 1916-1935
Goodyear Tire and Rubber Co., 640 N. Capitol Ave., 1913
Frank Hatfield Ford Showroom, 627 N. Capitol Ave. 1920
Williams Building Showroom, 611-617 N. Capitol Ave. 1916-1917
William Small Co., (Monroe Factory), 602 N. Capitol Ave., 1918-1923
Cadillac Co. of Indiana Showroom, 500-514 N. Capitol Ave., 1910-1911
Gibson Co. Building (Willys-Overland affiliation), 433-447 N. Capitol Ave. 1916-1917

Duesenberg Final Assembly
Duesenberg Final Assembly

The Duesenberg Motor Car Company (1920-1937) final assembly building is situated at 1511 W. Washington Street. At 1225 W. Harding Street is the Marmon complex (1919-1932).

The former home of the Cole Motor Car Company (1913-1925) is at 730 E. Washington Street, and at 1307-1323 E. Washington is the Ford Motor Company (1914-1932) branch. This plant produced over 581,000 vehicles for the Indiana Region.

These buildings serve as an overview of the over 40 existing sites of Indianapolis automotive heritage. Occasionally one of the existing structures is demolished. There needs to be a way to better recognize these heritage sites for posterity. Let us know your thoughts.

For a personal tour of various Indianapolis automotive sites, follow this link.